The sponsors invite applications that employ innovative research to identify mechanisms of influence and/or promote positive sustainable health behavior(s) in children and youth (birth to age 18). Positive health behaviors may include: developing healthy sleep patterns, developing effective self-regulation strategies, adaptive decision-making in risk situations, practicing proper dental hygiene, eating a balanced and nutritious diet, engaging in age-appropriate physical activity and/or participating in healthy relationships. Applications to promote positive health behavior(s) should target social and cultural factors, including, but not limited to: schools, families, communities, population, food industry, age-appropriate learning tools and games, social media, social networking, technology and mass media. Topics to be addressed in this announcement include: effective, sustainable processes for influencing young people to make healthy behavior choices; identification of the appropriate stage of influence for learning sustainable lifelong health behaviors; the role of technology and new media in promoting healthy behavior; identification of factors that support healthy behavior development in vulnerable populations, identification of barriers to healthy behaviors; and, identification of mechanisms and mediators that are common to the development of a range of habitual health behaviors. Due: (R01): The deadlines for receipt of standard R01 applications under this announcement are: February 5, June 5, and October 5 annually. (R03): The deadlines for receipt of standard R01 applications under this announcement are: February 16, June 16, and October 16 annually. (R21): The deadlines for receipt of standard R01 applications under this announcement are: February 16, June 16, and October 16 annually.